Oxygen isotope evidence for interaction of Franciscan high-grade blocks in the mantle wedge with sediment derived fluids, Ring Mountain (Tiburon) and Jenner Beach, California
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Oxygen isotopes and major and trace element geochemistry have been used to evaluate the geochemical and tectonic history of a Franciscan hornblende-amphibolite and a eclogite block from Ring Mountain, Tiburon and three eclogite/blueschist blocks from Jenner Beach, California, all blocks have experienced varying amounts of retrogression. Relative to the presumed basaltic protolith, enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) indicate interaction with sediment derived fluids in the retrograde eclogite and retrograde blueschist samples and high Mg, Cr, and Ni in actinolite rind indicate interaction with ultramafic rock. The [delta]¹⁸O values of chlorite from the Ring Mountain hornblende-amphibolite and the eclogite block have a narrow range of [delta]¹⁸O values (+7.7-8.2%₀, n=8) and actinolite from actinolite rind on the eclogite block from Ring Mountain and the blueschist/eclogite blocks from Jenner Beach are (+7.8-8.5%₀, n=5). Chlorite-actinolite geothermometry yields temperatures of 200-280°C for actinolite rind formation. Additionally, the [delta]¹⁸O values of both chlorite and actinolite at these temperatures indicates equilibrium with the measured value of Tiburon serpentinites, (7.6 to 8.1%₀, n = 3 Wenner and Taylor, 1974). Oxygen isotope analyses of garnet mineral separates from the eclogite and hornblende-amphibolite from Ring Mountain have [delta]¹⁸O values of +6.8±0.3%₀ (n=7), and +8.2±0.2%₀ (n=7), respectively. Garnets from the three eclogite/blueschist blocks at Jenner Beach have a [delta]¹⁸O value of +9.8±0.7%₀, (n=23). The difference in [delta]¹⁸O values of garnets between the high-grade blocks is likely due to in situ hydrothermal alteration of the seafloor basalt prior to subduction. The geochemical trends can be explained by a model in which during the early stages of subduction pieces of altered oceanic crust are detached from the downgoing slab and incorporated into the mantle wedge soon after reaching peak eclogite or amphibolite facies conditions. As subduction continues, the hanging wall cools and fluids released from subducted sediments infiltrate the overlying mantle wedge. As the blocks cool they develop a retrograde blueschist facies overprint under relatively static conditions. With cooling of the hanging wall and infiltration of sedimentary fluids, serpentinization induces reaction between the blocks and surrounding mantle wedge and Mg-rich actinolite rind is formed. The blocks are then plucked from the mantle wedge and incorporated into the subduction channel where they flow back to the surface via corner flow.