Fluid and metal sourcing for the native silver deposits in the Batopilas Mining District, Chihuahua, Mexico
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The Batopilas Mining District was a major silver producer, with estimated historic production of more than 300 million ounces. Orebodies consist of high-grade silver in the forms of native silver, acanthite and proustite hosted dominantly in calcite veins. Recent exploration has facilitated the reexamination of the geologic features and origin of the enigmatic native silver district. Sulfur, lead, and strontium isotopic studies have been conducted to constrain the fluid and metal sourcing. [delta]³⁴SvCDT isotope signatures for galena, sphalerite and pyrite range from -8 to -2, -6 to 0, and -5 to 3°/₀₀, respectively. A fractionation temperature of 227±25 °C can be obtained using average sulfur isotope values for galena and sphalerite. Galena lead isotopic values show two distinct signatures. Samples of massive-replacement style mineralization have ²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁴Pb, ²⁰⁷Pb/²⁰⁴Pb, and ²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁴Pb values of 18.742 and 18.747, 15.611 and 15.618, and 38.512 and 38.535, respectively. For vein samples, the corresponding values range from 18.799 to 18.817, 15.623 to 15.639, and 38.603 to 38.655. The lead isotopic signatures for vein galena have lower thorogenic lead content than other ore deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental, suggesting a different source of metals. Vein calcite samples have ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr isotopic compositions ranging from 0.707551 to 0.70590 (±0.000009) and Sr concentrations ranging from 51 to 246 ppm. These vein components may reflect mixed deep-marine sedimentary and Precambrian basement sources. A reconnaissance fluid inclusion study was conducted to better constrain fluid temperature and composition. The minerals studied included quartz, fluorite, and two types of sphalerite. The average eutectic temperatures obtained are -38°C, -31°C, and -43°C, respectively, indicating a complex mineralizing brine. Homogenization temperatures averaged 143°C, 165°C, and 174°C, and the NaCl equivalent weight percents averaged 4, 7, and 17, respectively. Fluids involved in vein mineralization are different from those typical of epithermal vein Ag-Au deposits, and may represent sedimentary brines that have circulated through the underlying basement.