False memories in adults who do and do not stutter
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The purpose of this study was to further explore previously observed differences in phonological processing between adults who do and do not stutter through a list recall task. Three types of lists of words were generated according to their associations with a lure word: phonological, semantic, and hybrid. For the experimental task, participants were instructed to listen to recordings of lists of 12 words, 4 of each type, and immediately recall them in any order. We looked at recall accuracy and rate of production of each list's associated lure word. For recall accuracy, phonological lists were lowest, hybrid lists were in the middle, and semantic lists were highest. For production of the critical lure, phonological lists were the lowest, semantic lists were in the middle, and hybrid lists were highest. The pattern was the same for recall accuracy and critical lure production for both talker groups; however, the adults who stutter had lower means for each condition in both cases. The results provide further evidence that there are systematic and significant differences in the phonological working memory efficiency of AWS and AWNS, which may contribute to fluency differences.