Enhancing reading comprehension in upper-elementary English language learners : a review
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The effects of comprehension-strategy based and decoding/fluency-based reading interventions on the reading comprehension skills of upper-elementary English language learners (ELLs) were evaluated in this review. Nine studies assessing the efficacy of ten interventions were systematically reviewed. Findings showed that comprehension strategy-based interventions were associated with positive gains in reading comprehension, while decoding and fluency-based interventions were not. Support was shown for direct instruction with guided and independent practice, large group discussions, and small-group student-led discussions. Support was also shown for the use of the following comprehension strategies: summarizing the text, identifying the main idea, making personal connections to the text, monitoring vocabulary comprehension, making predictions, asking questions, and visualizing.