Novel channel sensing and access strategies in opportunistic spectrum access networks
MetadataShow full item record
Traditionally radio spectrum was considered a commodity to be allocated in a fixed and centralized manner, but now the technical community and the regulators approach it as a shared resource that can be flexibly and intelligently shared between competing entities. In this thesis we focus on novel strategies to sense and access the radio spectrum within the framework of Opportunistic Spectrum Access via Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). In the first part we develop novel transmit opportunity detection methods that effectively exploit the gray space present in packet based networks. Our methods proactively detect the maximum safe transmit power that does not significantly affect the primary network nodes via an implicit feedback mechanism from the Primary network to the Secondary network. A novel use of packet interarrival duration is developed to robustly perform change detection in the primary network's Quality of Service. The methods are validated on real world IEEE 802.11 WLANs. In the second part we study the inferential use of Goodness-of-Fit tests for spectrum sensing applications. We provide the first comprehensive framework for decision fusion of an ensemble of goodness-of-fit tests through use of p-values. Also, we introduce a generalized Phi-divergence statistic to formulate goodness-of-fit tests that are tunable via a single parameter. We show that under uncertainty in the noise statistics or non-Gaussianity in the noise, the performance of such non-parametric tests is significantly superior to that of conventional spectrum sensing methods. Additionally, we describe a collaborative spatially separated version of the test for robust combining of tests in a distributed spectrum sensing setting. In the third part we develop the sequential energy detection problem for spectrum sensing and formulate a novel Sequential Energy Detector. Through extensive simulations we demonstrate that our doubly hierarchical sequential testing architecture delivers a significant throughput improvement of 2 to 6 times over the fixed sample size test while maintaining equivalent operating characteristics as measured by the Probabilities of Detection and False Alarm. We also demonstrate the throughput gains for a case study of sensing ATSC television signals in IEEE 802.22 systems.