Thermodynamics of CO₂ loaded aqueous amines
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Thermodynamics is important for the design of amine scrubbing CO₂ capture processes. CO₂ solubility and amine volatility in aqueous amines were measured at high temperature and pressure. A rigorous thermodynamic model was developed for MEA-CO₂-H₂O in Aspen Plus®. CO₂ solubility at 80-190°C was obtained from total pressure measurements. Empirical models as a function of temperature and loading were developed for CO₂ solubility from 40 to 160°C in aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), piperazine (PZ), 1-methylpiperazine (1MPZ), 2-methylpiperazine (2MPZ), PZ/2MPZ, diglycolamine® (DGA®), PZ/1MPZ/1,4-dimethylpiperazine (1,4-DMPZ), and PZ/methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). The high temperature CO₂ solubility data for MEA is comparable to literature and compatible with previous low temperature data. For MEA and PZ, amine concentration does not have obvious effects on the CO₂ solubility. The heat of CO₂ absorption derived from these models varies from 66 kJ/mol for 4 m (molal) PZ/4 m 2MPZ and to 72, 72, and 73 kJ/mol for MEA, 7 m MDEA/2 m PZ, and DGA. The heat of absorption estimated from the total pressure data does not vary significantly with temperature. At 0-0.5 loading ([alpha]), 313-413 K, 3.5-11 m MEA (mol fraction x is 0.059-0.165), the empirical model of MEA volatility is ln(PMEA/xMEA) = 30.0-8153/T-2594[alpha]²/T. In 7 m MEA with 0.2 and 0.5 loading, PMEA is 920 and 230 Pa at 120°C. At 0.3-0.5 loading, the enthalpy of MEA vaporization, -[Delta]Hvap,MEA, is about 70-73 kJ/mol MEA. At 0.25-0.4 loading, 313-423 K, 4.7-11.3 m PZ (x is 0.078-0.169), the empirical model of PZ volatility is ln(PPZ/xPZ) = -123+21.6lnT+20.2[alpha]-18174[alpha]²/T. In 8 m PZ with 0.3 and 0.4 loading, PPZ is 400 and 120 Pa at 120°C, and 2620 and 980 Pa at 150°C. At 0.25-0.4 loading, -[Delta]Hvap,PZ is about 85-100 kJ/mol PZ at 150°C and 66-80 kJ/mol PZ at 40°C. [Delta]Hvap,PZ has a larger dependence on CO₂ loading than [Delta]Hvap,MEA in rich solution because of the more complex speciation/reactions in PZ at rich loading. Specific heat capacity of 8 m PZ is 3.43-3.81 J/(g•K) at 70-150°C. Two new thermodynamic models of MEA-CO₂-H₂O were developed in Aspen Plus® starting with the Hilliard (2008) MEA model. One (Model B) includes a new species MEACOOH and it gets a better prediction than the other (Model A) for CO₂ solubility, MEA volatility, heat of absorption, and other thermodynamic results. The Model B prediction matches the experimental pKa of MEACOOH, and the measured concentration of MEACOO-/MEACOOH by NMR. In the prediction the concentration of MEACOOH is 0.1-3% in 7 m MEA at high temperature or high loading, where the heat of formation of MEACOOH has effects on PCO₂ and CO₂ heat of absorption. Model B solved the problems of Model A by adding MEACOOH and matched the experimental data of pKa and speciation, therefore MEACOOH may be considered an important species at high temperature or high loading. Although mostly developed from 7 m MEA data, Model B also gives a good profile for 11 m (40 wt%) MEA.