Sustainable microgrid and electric vehicle charging demand for a smarter grid
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A “smarter grid” is expected to be more flexible and more reliable than traditional electric power grids. Among technologies required for the “smarter grid” deployment, this dissertation presents a sustainable microgrid and a spatial and temporal model of plug-in electric vehicle charging demand for the “smarter grid”. First, this dissertation proposes the dynamic modeling technique and operational strategies for a sustainable microgrid primarily powered by wind and solar energy resources. Multiple-input dc-dc converters are used to interface the renewable energy sources to the main dc bus. The intended application for such a microgrid is an area in which there is interest in achieving a sustainable energy solution, such as a telecommunication site or a residential area. Wind energy variations and rapidly changing solar irradiance are considered in order to explore the effect of such environmental variations to the intended microgrid. The proposed microgrid can be operated in an islanded mode in which it can continue to generate power during natural disasters or grid outages, thus improving disaster resiliency of the “smarter grid”. In addition, this dissertation presents the spatial and temporal model of electric vehicle charging demand for a rapid charging station located near a highway exit. Most previous studies have assumed a fixed charging location and fixed charging time during the off-peak hours for anticipating electric vehicle charging demand. Some other studies have based on limited charging scenarios at typical locations instead of a mathematical model. Therefore, from a distribution system perspective, electric vehicle charging demand is still unidentified quantity which may vary by space and time. In this context, this study proposes a mathematical model of electric vehicle charging demand for a rapid charging station. The mathematical model is based on the fluid dynamic traffic model and the M/M/s queueing theory. Firstly, the arrival rate of discharged vehicles at a charging station is predicted by the fluid dynamic model. Then, charging demand is forecasted by the M/M/s queueing theory with the arrival rate of discharged vehicles. The first letter M of M/M/s indicates that discharged vehicles arrive at a charging station with the Poisson distribution. The second letter M denotes that the time to charge each EV is exponentially distributed, and the third letter s means that there are s identical charging pumps at a charging station. This mathematical model of charging demand may allow grid’s distribution planners to anticipate charging demand at a specific charging station.