Confined electron systems in Si-Ge nanowire heterostructures
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Semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors (NWFET) have been recognized as a possible alternative to silicon-based CMOS technology as traditional scaling limits are neared. The core-shell nanowire structure, in particular, also allows for the enhancement of carrier mobility through radial band engineering. In this thesis, we have evaluated the possibility of electron confinement in strained Si-Si1-xGex core-shell nanowire heterostructures. Cylindrical strain distribution was calculated analytically for structures of various dimensions and shell compositions. The strain-induced conduction band edge shift of each region was found using k•p theory coupled with a coordinate system shift to account for strain. A positive conduction band offset of up to 200 meV was found for a Si-Si0.2Ge0.8 structure. We have also designed and characterized a modulation doping scheme for p-type, Ge-SiGe core-shell NWFETs. Finite element simulations of hole density versus radial position were done for different combinations of dopant position and concentration. Three modulation doped nanowire samples, each with a different boron doping density in the shell, were grown using a combined vapor-liquid-solid and chemical vapor deposition process. Low temperature current-voltage measurements of bottom- and top-gate samples indicate that hole mobility is limited by the proximity of charged impurities.