Improving the efficiency of dynamic traffic assignment through computational methods based on combinatorial algorithm
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Transportation planning and operation requires determining the state of the transportation system under different network supply and demand conditions. The most fundamental determinant of the state of a transportation system is time-varying traffic flow pattern on its roadway segments. It forms a basis for numerous engineering analyses which are used in operational- and planning-level decision-making process. Dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) models are the leading modeling tools employed to determine time-varying traffic flow pattern under changing network conditions. DTA models have matured over the past three decades, and are now being adopted by transportation planning agencies and traffic management centers. However, DTA models for large-scale regional networks require excessive computational resources. The problem becomes further compounded for other applications such as congestion pricing, capacity calibration, and network design for which DTA needs to be solved repeatedly as a sub-problem. This dissertation aims to improve the efficiency of the DTA models, and increase their viability for various planning and operational applications. To this end, a suite of computational methods based on the combinatorial approach for dynamic traffic assignment was developed in this dissertation. At first, a new polynomial run time combinatorial algorithm for DTA was developed. The combinatorial DTA (CDTA) model complements and aids simulation-based DTA models rather than replace them. This is because various policy measures and active traffic control strategies are best modeled using the simulation-based DTA models. Solution obtained from the CDTA model was provided as an initial feasible solution to a simulation-based DTA model to improve its efficiency – this process is called “warm starting” the simulation-based DTA model. To further improve the efficiency of the simulation-based DTA model, the warm start process is made more efficient through parallel computing. Parallel computing was applied to the CDTA model and the traffic simulator used for warm starting. Finally, another warm start method based on the static traffic assignment model was tested on the simulation-based DTA model. The computational methods developed in this dissertation were tested on the Anaheim, CA and Winnipeg, Canada networks. Models warm-started using the CDTA solution performed better than the purely simulation-based DTA models in terms of equilibrium convergence metrics and run time. Warm start methods using solutions from the static traffic assignment models showed similar improvements. Parallel computing was applied to the CDTA model, and it resulted in faster execution time by employing multiple computer processors. Parallel version of the traffic simulator can also be embedded into the simulation-assignment framework of the simulation-based DTA models and improve their efficiency.