Use of manufactured sands for concrete paving
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Manufactured fine aggregates are a product created when rocks are crushed using a mechanical crusher. With the depletion of sources of natural sands, the usage of manufactured fine aggregates has increased. Manufactured fine aggregates have properties that differ from natural sands; for this reason, the plastic and hardened properties of concrete produced using manufactured fine aggregates differ from the properties of concrete made with natural sands. The main concrete properties affected by the usage of manufactured fine aggregates are skid resistance, workability, and finishability. The aim of this research project was to investigate how manufactured fine aggregates could be used in concrete pavements without causing workability or skid related issues. To improve the workability of concrete made with manufactured fine aggregates, the use of the optimized mixture proportioning method developed by the International Center for Aggregate Research (ICAR) was investigated. Results obtained from this testing were used to make recommendations on how the ICAR method for pavement concrete could be improved The goal of this research was to also develop laboratory tests that could reasonably predict skid performance of concrete pavements made with different types of sand. For this purpose concrete slabs made with different sands were evaluated for friction and texture using a circular texture meter (CTM), a dynamic friction tester (DFT), and a polisher. To ensure that the values obtained at the laboratory related to field performance, test sections constructed with 100% limestone sand and blended sands were evaluated. Laboratory and field test results for skid were used to identify aggregate tests that best correlates with concrete performance. Results show that the micro-Deval test for fine aggregates could be used to predict the polish resistance of concrete laboratory specimen. Results from field testing has shown that if limestone fine aggregates are not blended with siliceous sands, PCC pavements made with limestone sands on truck lanes could experience a large drop in skid resistance within a year of service. Results obtained from laboratory testing showed that blending a small quantity of siliceous sand with limestone sands considerably increased the skid resistance of concrete specimens.