Advancement of photodissociation and electron-based tandem mass spectrometry methods for proteome analysis
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The number and types of diagnostic ions obtained by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and collision induced dissociation (CID) were evaluated for supercharged peptide ions created by electrospray ionization of solutions spiked with mnitrobenzyl alcohol. IRMPD of supercharged peptide ions increased the sequence coverage compared to that obtained by CID for all charge states investigated. Multiply charged, N-terminally derivatized peptides were subjected to electron transfer reactions to produce singly charged, radical species. Upon subsequent “soft” CID, highly abundant z-type ions were formed nearly exclusively, which yielded simplified fragmentation patterns amenable to de novo sequencing methods. Furthermore, the simplified series of z ions were shown to retain labile phosphoric acid moieties. Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) was implemented in a novel dual pressure linear ion trap for rapid “top-down” proteomics. Due to secondary dissociation, IRMPD yielded product ions in significantly lower charge states as compared to CID, thus facilitating more accurate mass identification and streamlining product ion assignment. This outcome was especially useful for database searching of larger proteins (~29 kDa) as IRMPD substantially improved protein identification and scoring confidence. Also, IRMPD showed an increased selectivity towards backbone cleavages N-terminal to proline and C-terminal to acidic residues (especially for the lowest precursor charge states). Ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) at 193 nm was implemented on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer for high-throughput proteomic workflows. Upon irradiation by a single 5 ns laser pulse, efficient photodissociation of tryptic peptides was achieved with production of a, b, c, x, y, and z sequence ions, in addition to immonium ions and v and w side-chain loss ions. The factors that influence the UVPD mass spectra and subsequent in silico database searching via SEQUEST were evaluated. 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) was employed to sequence singly and multiply charged peptide anions. Upon dissociation by this method, a-/x-type, followed by d and w side-chain loss ions, were the most prolific and abundant sequence ions, often yielding 100% sequence coverage. LC-MS/UVPD analysis using high pH mobile phases yielded efficient characterization of acidic peptides from mitogen-activated protein kinases.