Germanium and epitaxial Ge:C devices for CMOS extension and beyond
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This work focuses on device design and process integration of high-performance Ge-based devices for CMOS applications and beyond. Here we addressed several key challenges towards Ge-based devices, such as, poor passivation, underperformance of nMOSFETs, and incompatibility of fragile Ge wafers for mass production. We simultaneously addressed the issues of bulk Ge and passivation for pMOSFETs, by fabricating Si-capped epitaxial Ge:C(C<0.5%) devices. Carbon improves the crystalline quality of the channel, while Si capping prevents GeOx formation, creates a quantum well for holes and thus improves mobility. Temperature-dependent characterization of these devices suggests that Si cap thickness needs to be optimized to ensure highest mobility. We developed a simple approach to grow GeO₂ by rapid thermal oxidation, which provides improved passivation, especially for nMOSFETs. The MOSCAPs with GeO₂ passivation show ~10× lower Dit (~8×10¹¹ cm⁻²eV⁻¹) than that of the HF-last devices. The Ge (111) nMOSFETs with GeO₂ passivation show ~2× enhancement in mobility (~715 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹ at peak) and ~1.6× enhancement in drive current over control Si (100) devices. For improved n⁺/p junctions, we proposed a simple technique of rapid thermal diffusion from "spin-on-dopants" to avoid implantation damage during junction formation. These junctions show a high ION/IOFF ratio (~10⁵⁻⁶) and an ideality factor of ~1.03, indicating a low defect density, whereas, ion-implanted junctions show higher Ioff (by ~1-2 orders) and a larger ideality factor (~1.45). Diffusion-doped and GeO₂-passivated Ge(100) nMOSFETs show a high ION/IOFF ratio (~10⁴⁻⁵) , a low SS (111 mV/decade), and a high [mu]eff (679 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹ at peak). Moreover, diffusion-doped Ge (111) nMOSFETs show even higher [mu]eff (970 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹ at peak) that surpasses the universal Si mobility at low Eeff. For Beyond CMOS devices, we investigated Mn-doped Ge:C-on-Si (100), a novel Si-compatible ferromagnetic semiconductor. The investigation suggests that the magnetic properties of these films depend strongly on crystalline structure and Mn concentration. On a different approach, we developed LaOx/SiOx barrier for Spin-diodes that reduces contact resistance by ~10⁴, compared to Al₂O₃ controls and hence is more conducive for spin injection. These ferromagnetic materials and devices can potentially be useful for novel spintronic devices.