Bispectral analysis of nonlinear acoustic propagation
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Higher-order spectral analysis of acoustical waveforms can provide phase information that is not retained in calculations of power spectral density. In the propagation of high intensity sound, nonlinearity can cause substantial changes in the waveform as frequency components interact with one another. The bispectrum, which is one order higher than power spectral density, may provide a useful measure of nonlinearity in propagation by highlighting spectral regions of interaction. This thesis provides a review of the bispectrum, places it in the context of nonlinear acoustic propagation, and presents spectra calculated as a function of distance for numerically propagated acoustic waveforms. The calculated spectra include power spectral density, quad-spectral density, bispectrum, spatial derivative of the bispectrum, bicoherence, and skewness function.