Remote sensing, geochemistry, geochronology, and cathodoluminescence imaging of the Egrigoz, Koyunoba, and Alacam plutons, Northern Menderes Massif, Turkey
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The Egrigoz, Koyunoba, and Alacam plutons are located in the Northern Menderes Massif of western Turkey between the Simav normal fault to the south and the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture to the north. Although much attention has focused on their geochemical and geochronological history, their relationship to each other and other major structures in the region is still debated. Some geologic maps show the Egrigoz and Koyunoba pluton bounded to the west by the low-angle Simav detachment fault. In contrast, other regional maps show no offsets between the plutons and surrounding metamorphic rocks. Yet other studies indicate thrust faults may be present near the Egrigoz pluton, between Menderes metamorphic rocks and a meta-rhyolite unit. To gain a better understanding of the history of the Egrigoz, Koyunoba, and Alacam plutons, ArcGIS digital elevation data from the region, geochronological data, geochemical analyses, and cathodoluminescence (CL) images were acquired to search for effects of micro- to macro-scales of deformation. Numerous ~E-W trending extension lineations that parallel the Simav graben and cut the plutons were observed in relief images. These lineations, likely due to large-scale ~N-S extension, continue across plutons inferring that extension continued after the exhumation of these rocks. The Simav graben and its associated high-angle fault are evident in the elevation data, but no other significant detachment-related basins or structures are shown, including the low-angle Simav detachment. U-Pb zircon ages, ranging from 29.9±3.9 Ma to 14.6±2.6 Ma, suggest the plutons crystallized over a ~15 m.y. time frame. Samples from the plutons are peraluminous S-type granite to granodiorites. The plutons were emplaced in a post-collisional volcanic-arc setting and range from magnesian to ferroan with increasing silica contents. Geochemical analyses show little difference between the three plutons, consistent with the rocks arising from a similar source. To document microstructures that might help explain these heterogeneities, CL images were obtained. CL images document a complicated tectonic history including magma mixing, multiple episodes of brittle deformation, and fluid alteration. The CL images constitute evidence of a complex multi-stage tectonic history for the region that includes water-mediated brittle deformation.