Effects of prolonged sitting and walking for two days on postprandial triglycerides in men : interaction with energy intake
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Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PPHT), an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (Smyth and Heron 2006; Nordestgaard, Benn et al. 2007), is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (Kolovou, Anagnostopoulou et al. 2005). It has been proposed that elevated triglycerides after a high-fat meal may be a postprandial phenomenon (Zilversmit 1979). PPHT are commonly concurrent with sedentary behaviors, such as extended sitting, which amplify PPHT (Levine, Vander Weg et al. 2006). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of prolonged sitting with or without a balanced caloric diet and walking with a balanced diet on postprandial triglycerides (PPTG). Seven healthy, young men (age, 25.6 ± 3.7 y; height, 174 ± 5 cm; weight, 71.4 ± 6.2kg; VO2max, 49.3 ± 7.7 ml/kg/min) were recruited from a college and from within the Austin community. After 2 days of food and activity control (D1and D2), subjects performed one of three trials in a randomized, cross-over design for 2 days (D3 and D4); (1) active walking with a balanced diet (WB), (2) prolonged sitting with a hyper-caloric diet (SH), and (3) prolonged sitting with a balanced diet (SB). High fat tolerance tests (HFTT) were conducted on the following day, (D5), after 13 hour over-night fasting. Blood samples were obtained in the fasting state and every hour for 6 hours after subjects had eaten a high fat test meal consisting of 1.2 g fat, 1.1 g CHO, 0.2 g protein/kg body mass. All food was provided during the 5-day duration of the study. Body postures, heart rate, and daily steps were monitored. In both sit trials (SH and SB), subjects sat ~320 minutes longer and took 10 times fewer steps than WB. In WB, the total area under the curves for plasma triglycerides (AUC[subscript T] TG) was lower, compared to SH by 21.3% (p<0.001) and to SB by 19.7% (N.S.; p = 0.055), respectively. In WB, the incremental AUC TG (AUC[subscript I] TG), an index of postprandial response, was lower than both SH by 17.4% (p <0.005) and SB by 20.1% (p <0.05), respectively. Postprandial plasma insulin concentration was lower in WB, compared to SH by 19.4% (p <0.005) in AUC[scubscript T] and 18.8 % (p < 0.05) in AUC[subscript I]. No differences were shown in the metabolic responses between SB and SH despite the diet modifications. These findings indicate that two days of prolonged sitting significantly amplifies PPTG and suppresses insulin action.