Highly concentrated, nanoclusters of self-crowded monoclonal antibodies for low viscosity, subcutaneous injections
MetadataShow full item record
Delivery of protein therapeutics is restricted to intravenous infusions due to protein-dependent problems including low solubilities, high viscosities, and physical instabilities. The ability to inject high concentrations of proteins via subcutaneous injections would increase accessibility and compliance. Large particles of a protein in a non-aqueous solvent can decrease the viscosity over a solution of equally concentrated individual protein molecules. The lower viscosity of a particle suspension is due to decreased surface area resulting in reduced electroviscous effects, solvation and deviations of the particle shape from a spherical geometry. Additional studies show that aqueous-based dispersions of antibody nanoclusters can be formed by increasing the attractive interactions between protein molecules using the excluded volume effects of extrinsic crowding agents. These novel, equilibrium, nanoclusters are maintained by a balance of highly attractive interactions and weak electrostatic repulsive interactions near the protein’s pI. These protein nanoclusters are ideal for subcutaneous delivery as they have low interactions between the colloids, are reversible in nature, and dissolve rapidly upon dilution in a buffer media. Through in vivo mouse studies, the bioavailability of a monoclonal antibody in the dispersion is prolonged and higher doses can be administered versus a solution. Overall, these studies with high concentration, low viscosity subcutaneous injections of protein therapeutics open new opportunities in biotechnology. For oral delivery of itraconzole, controlled flocculation of individual polymerically-stabilized nanoparticles is used to increase supersaturation. Flocculation of these nanoparticles is achieved by desolvating the polymer by changing the pH. The flocculated dispersions can then be easily filtered. The final amorphous powder maintains high supersaturation with simulated stomach and small intestine conditions and improves bioavailability of itraconazole, over the commercial product, Sporanox®.