Fault detection and model-based diagnostics in nonlinear dynamic systems
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Modeling, fault assessment, and diagnostics of rolling element bearings and induction motors were studied. Dynamic model of rolling element bearings with faults were developed using vector bond graphs. The model incorporates gyroscopic and centrifugal effects, contact deflections and forces, contact slip and separations, and localized faults. Dents and pits on inner race, outer race and balls were modeled through surface profile changes. Experiments with healthy and faulty bearings validated the model. Bearing load zones under various radial loads and clearances were simulated. The model was used to study dynamics of faulty bearings. Effects of type, size and shape of faults on the vibration response and on dynamics of contacts in presence of localized faults were studied. A signal processing algorithm, called feature plot, based on variable window averaging and time feature extraction was proposed for diagnostics of rolling element bearings. Conducting experiments, faults such as dents, pits, and rough surfaces on inner race, balls, and outer race were detected and isolated using the feature plot technique. Time features such as shape factor, skewness, Kurtosis, peak value, crest factor, impulse factor and mean absolute deviation were used in feature plots. Performance of feature plots in bearing fault detection when finite numbers of samples are available was shown. Results suggest that the feature plot technique can detect and isolate localized faults and rough surface defects in rolling element bearings. The proposed diagnostic algorithm has the potential for other applications such as gearbox. A model-based diagnostic framework consisting of modeling, non-linear observability analysis, and parameter tuning was developed for three-phase induction motors. A bond graph model was developed and verified with experiments. Nonlinear observability based on Lie derivatives identified the most observable configuration of sensors and parameters. Continuous-discrete Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) technique was used for parameter tuning to detect stator and rotor faults, bearing friction, and mechanical loads from currents and speed signals. A dynamic process noise technique based on the validation index was implemented for EKF. Complex step Jacobian technique improved computational performance of EKF and observability analysis. Results suggest that motor faults, bearing rotational friction, and mechanical load of induction motors can be detected using model-based diagnostics as long as the configuration of sensors and parameters is observable.