The impact of video self-modeling on culturally and linguistically diverse secondary students with an emotional disturbance
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Students with ED often exhibit disruptive behavior in the classroom that adversely affects the learning environment (Cook, Gresham, Kern, Barreras, Thornton, & Crews, 2008). Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students tend to be over-represented in this category of disability. Despite the fact that the majority of students identified with ED are male, females do represent 23.6% of this population (U.S. Department of Education, 1998; Yell, Meadows, Drasgow, & Shriner, 2009). Additionally, a large number of individuals with ED are high school age (Wagner, Friend, Bursuck, Kutash, Duchnowski, Sumi, & Epstein, 2006). Interventions used with this population have often been punitive in nature, designed to control behavior rather than to help an individual improve (Newcomer, 2003). Efforts of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 and the Individual with Disabilities Act (IDEA) require the use of scientifically-based practices when addressing academic and behavioral goals. A variety of interventions for students with ED have been investigated. While many of these interventions produce degrees of positive change, they often demand a great deal of time and effort from the teacher (Wagner et al., 2006). Video self-modeling (VSM) is an intervention involving an individual watching him/herself on video demonstrating desired and appropriate behavior. It has been proven successful with other challenging populations (e.g., individuals with autism) (Buggey, 2005). Few studies of VSM have been conducted with secondary students with ED. The present study was designed to analyze the effects that VSM had on four secondary CLD students with ED across a variety of behaviors, including laughing obnoxiously out loud, using profanity, and requesting help. Multiple baseline designs across students were used to evaluate performance. The results indicated all four participants exhibited immediate and significant gains upon implementation of the VSM intervention, and that those gains were maintained after cessation of intervention. The findings suggest that VSM may represent a positive behavior change intervention worthy of consideration for CLD secondary students with ED.