Fully integrated CMOS charge pump design
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Due to the continuous power supply reduction, Charge Pumps, also referred to as DC-DC converters, circuits are widely used in integrated circuits (ICs) to generate high voltages for many applications, such as EEP-ROMs, Flash memories for programming and erasing of the floating gate, switched capacitor circuits, operational amplifiers, voltage regulators, LCD drivers, piezoelectricactuators, etc. A charge pump is a kind of DC to DC converter that uses capacitors as energy storage elements to create either a higher or lower voltage power source. The development of the charge pumps is motivated by ever increasing the needs for the small form factor (i.e small size and low weight), high-conversion-efficiency and low costpower management system, which is the best candidate suitable to meet the needs of continuosly shrinking portable electronic devices like MP3 players, cellular phones, PDA's.