Short-term and long-term effects of coach leadership behaviors
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Sport is a medium through which the leader can greatly influence the consequences. The purpose of this research was to examine the ways in which perceived coach leadership behaviors impact perceptions of coaching performance, individual athlete performance, team performance, and lifelong outcomes. In this study, two hundred seventy nine former student-athletes were asked to recall and report on the experiences they had as an athlete during high school along with specific lifelong outcomes (e.g., confidence, control etc.). Student judgment of their coaches’ types of behavior, (e.g., Democratic vs. Autocratic) was compared with perceptions of their coach’s performance, their individual performance, their team’s performance and various lifelong outcomes. Results revealed that Training and Instruction, Social Support, and Positive Feedback were related to Coach Performance. Training and Instruction and Democratic Behaviors were related to Individual Athlete Performance. Training and Instruction and Positive Feedback were related to Team Performance. Social Support structures were related to Athlete Challenge. Training and Instruction was related to Athlete Confidence in Abilities and overall Lifelong Outcomes. Autocratic Behaviors were related to Athlete Control of Emotions. Training and Instruction was found to be related to every short-term performance component. Coaches seeking to impact performance of their teams can do so by utilizing these leadership behaviors. Many of these behaviors also have a long-term positive effect on the individual. Sport managers seeking to satisfy the goals of the organization may employ these leadership behaviors to select, train, and evaluate staff members to increase the overall effectiveness of the organization.