Optical characterization of high-[Kappa] dielectric structures
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Charge trapping dynamics in Si/SiO2/Hf(1-x)SixO2 and III-V film stack systems are characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and second harmonic generation (SHG). For the first time, discrete absorption features within the bandgap of the SiO2 interfacial layer are identified using SE, and their relation to both intrinsic and process-induced defects is proposed. Sensitivity of the absorption features to process conditions is demonstrated and evidence that these defects contribute to Vfb roll-off is presented. Defects in the Hf(1-x)SixO2 films are probed with fs laser-induced internal multi-photon photo-excitation (IMPE) and time dependent electrostatic field induced second harmonic (TD-EFISH) generation. For the as deposited HfO2 films, a unique TD-EFISH response is identified and explained by resonant two photon ionization of a specific point defect and subsequent tunneling of the photoelectrons to the Si substrate. Charge trapping kinetics for all Hf(1-x)SixO2 films are investigated. Two characteristic trap cross sections are identified and found to be insensitive to dielectric film and process conditions, and associated with a surface “harpooning” mechanism. EFISH from non-centrosymmetric III-V media, including GaAs and In0.53Ga0.47As, is also studied. The anisotropic and time dependent SHG response from different chemically treated In0.53Ga0.47As surfaces is clearly distinguishable and associated with a process-induced change in the surface depletion field.