Pore-scale modeling of the impact of surrounding flow behavior on multiphase flow properties
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Accurate predictions of macroscopic multiphase flow properties, such as relative permeability and capillary pressure, are necessary for making key decisions in reservoir engineering. These properties are usually measured experimentally, but pore-scale network modeling has become an efficient alternative for understanding fundamental flow behavior and prediction of macroscopic properties. In many cases network modeling gives excellent agreement with experiment by using models physically representative of real media. Void space within a rock sample can be extracted from high resolution images and converted to a topologically equivalent network of pores and throats. Multiphase fluid transport is then modeled by imposing mass conservation at each pore and implementing the Young-Laplace equation in pore throats; the resulting pressure field and phase distributions are used to extract macroscopic properties. Advancements continue to be made in making network modeling predictive, but one limitation is that artificial (e.g. constant pressure gradient) boundary conditions are usually assumed; they do not reflect the local saturations and pressure distributions that are affected by flow and transport in the surrounding media. In this work we demonstrate that flow behavior at the pore scale, and therefore macroscopic properties, is directly affected by the boundary conditions. Pore-scale drainage is modeled here by direct coupling to other pore-scale models so that the boundary conditions reflect flow behavior in the surrounding media. Saturation couples are used as the mathematical tool to ensure continuity of saturations between adjacent models. Network simulations obtained using the accurate, coupled boundary conditions are compared to traditional approach and the resulting macroscopic petrophysical properties are shown to be largely dependent upon the specified boundary conditions. The predictive ability of network simulations is improved using the novel network coupling scheme. Our results give important insight into upscaling as well as approaches for including pore-scale models directly into reservoir simulators.