Analytical study of complex quantum trajectories
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Quantum trajectories are investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. A unified description is presented for complex quantum trajectories for one-dimensional time-dependent and time-independent problems. Complex quantum trajectories are examined for the free Gaussian wave packet, the coherent state in the harmonic potential, and the the barrier scattering problems. We analyze the variations of the complex-valued kinetic energy, the classical potential, and the quantum potential along the complex quantum trajectories. For one-dimensional time-independent scattering problems, we demonstrate general properties and similar structures of the complex quantum trajectories and the quantum potentials. In addition, it is shown that a quantum vortex forms around a node in the wave function in complex space, and the quantized circulation integral originates from the discontinuity in the real part of the complex action. Although the quantum momentum field displays hyperbolic flow around a node, the corresponding Polya vector field displays circular flow. Moreover, local topologies of the quantum momentum function and the Polya vector field are thoroughly analyzed near a stagnation point or a pole (including circular, hyperbolic, and attractive or repulsive structures). The local structure of the quantum momentum function and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the quantum momentum function. However, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Finally, quantum interference is investigated and it leads to the formation of the topological structure of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. These caves consist of the vortical and stagnation tubes originating from the isosurfaces of the amplitude of the wave function and its first derivative. Complex quantum trajectories display helical wrapping around the stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near the vortical tubes. Moreover, the wrapping time for a specific trajectory is determined by the divergence and vorticity of the quantum momentum field. The lifetime for interference features is determined by the rotational dynamics of the nodal line in the complex plane. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the complex quantum trajectory method provides a novel perspective for analysis and interpretation of quantum phenomena.
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