Nanoparticle formulations of poorly water soluble drugs and their action in vivo and in vitro
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Poorly water soluble drugs have been manipulated to make them more soluble, increasing the bioavailability of these drugs. Several cryogenic processes allow for production of drug nanoparticles, without mechanical stress that could cause degradation. The Ultra Rapid Freezing (URF) process is a technique which improves water solubility of drugs by reducing primary drug particle size by producing amorphous solid dispersions. Heat conduction is improved, using a cryogenic material with a high thermal conductivity relative to the solution being frozen to maintain the surface temperature and heat transfer rate while the solution is being frozen. With URF technology, the freezing rate is fixed, which drives the particle formation and determines its characteristics. Supersaturation of drug in aqueous solution can allow for better absorption of the drug via the oral and pulmonary routes. Drug formulations that supersaturate the dissolution media show the possibility for increased bioavailability from an amorphous drug form. If the concentration of drug in solution is significantly increased, higher chemical potential will lead to an increase in flux across an exposed membrane, leading to higher blood levels for an amorphous drug, compared to an identical crystalline formulation. During oral delivery, supersaturated drug concentrations would also saturate PGP efflux sites in the gut lumen, increasing the drug's bioavailability. Saturated PGP sites show zero order efflux kinetics, so increasing the drug concentration in supersaturated biological fluid will increase serum drug levels. High supersaturation levels maintained for prolonged periods would have a beneficial effect on a drug's absolute bioavailability. Pulmonary administration offers therapeutic advantages over more invasive routes of administration. Limited amount of metabolizing enzymes like CYP 3A4 in lung tissue along with avoidance of first pass metabolism are advantages to pulmonary delivery. The objective of the research presented in this dissertation is to show the versatility of nanoparticulate poorly water soluble drug formulations. Due to the reduced particle size and the URF manufacturing process, a wide range of applications can be used with these nanoparticles. Oral and pulmonary administration routes can be explored using nanoparticles, but in vitro cell culture testing can show clinical benefits from this type of processing technology.