A low-voltage, low-power CMOS bandgap reference
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Bandgap reference circuits are used in a host of analog, digital, and mixed-signal systems to establish an accurate voltage reference for the entire IC. The most used CMOS implementation for voltage references is the bandgap circuit due to its high predictability, and low dependence of the supply voltage and temperature of operation. This work studies a CMOS implementation of a resistor-less bandgap reference, which consumes low power. The most relevant and traditional approaches usually employed to implement bandgap voltage references are investigated. The impact of process, power-supply, load and temperature variations has been analyzed and simulated. The functionality of critical components of the circuit has been verified through chip implementation.