Vertical and Horizontal Fabrication of Alginate-Based Vascular-Like Constructs Using Inkjetting
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Organ printing, among different tissue engineering innovations, is a layer-by-layer additive fabrication approach for making three-dimensional (3D) tissue and organ constructs using cellular spheroids or bioink as building blocks. The capability to fabricate 3D cellular tubes is the first step as well as an important indicator of the overall feasibility of envisioned organ printing technology. In this study, vascular-like alginate tubes with a hemi-branching point, which mimic typical vascular constructs, are fabricated both vertically and horizontally using drop-on-demand inkjetting. In addition, manufacturing challenges associated with the vertical and horizontal printing configurations are briefly discussed. This study lays a foundation for the effective and efficient fabrication of viable 3D vascular constructs with complex anatomies (e.g. branching) as required in organ printing of vascular trees.