Expanded porphyrins: large porphyrin-like tripyrroledimethine-derived macrocycles
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" The present invention involves a novel tripyrrole dimethine-derived ""expanded porphyrin"" (texaphyrin), the synthesis of such compounds, their analogs or derivatives and their uses. These expanded porphyrin-like macrocycles are efficient chelators of divalent and trivalent metal ions. Metal complexes of these compounds are active as photosensitizers for the generation of singlet oxygen and thus potentially for inactivation or destruction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), mononuclear or other cells infected with such virus and tumor cells as well. A variety of texaphyrin derivatives have been produced and many more are readily obtainable. Various metal (e.g., transition, main group, and lanthanide) complexes with the texaphyrin and texaphyrin derivatives of the present invention have unusual water solubility and stability which render them particularly useful. These metallotexaphyrin complexes have optical properties making them unique as compared to existing porphyrin-like or other macrocycles. For example, they absorb light strongly in a physiologically important region (i.e. 690-880 nm). These complexes also form long-lived triplet states in high yield and act as efficient photosensitizers for the formation of singlet oxygen. These properties, coupled with their high chemical stability and appreciable solubility in polar media such as water, add to their usefulness. "