Low frequency ac transmission for power systems
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Conventional transmission systems utilize either high voltage ac (HVAC), operating at 50 or 60 Hz, or high voltage dc (HVDC) to transfer bulk power. The HVAC system is designed to operate at a high voltage level to reduce losses and increase bulk power transfer. This method is limited, however, by the constraints of installed transmission overhead lines, such as voltage level and power transfer capability. In contrast, the HVDC system can handle a large amount of power on the transmission line by utilizing dc current instead of ac. While the HVDC system has no limitation in transmission line length for power transfer, it does however, require a high initial cost for converter stations and specialized protection systems. Additionally, the HVDC system is a point-to-point connection, and thus not flexible for multi-terminal connection. The low frequency ac (LFAC) transmission system, first introduced in 2000, is another solution for bulk power transmission that inherits advantages from both high voltage ac and high voltage dc systems. The primary advantage of LFAC transmission is that by operating the system at a frequency lower than 50 or 60 Hz, the transmission line reactance can be significantly reduced, thus extending power capacity. Further advantages include multi-terminal connections, distance protection using alternating-current based circuit breakers, and improving power transfer capability close to that of an HVDC system. This dissertation investigates the benefits of an LFAC system in terms of power transfer capability and voltage stability. First, the steady-state performances of the transmission line under low frequency range are investigated, including the skin effect to see any possible changes in transmission line model. More importantly, the power transfer capability, and voltage profiles during no-load and full-load conditions are examined. Next, the system voltage stability under low frequency operations is studied in detail to analyze how the low frequency operation helps improve a power system stability. Furthermore, the system modeling, protection, and hardware platform to test the low frequency ac transmission are studied deeply. A new grid synchronization configuration to interface a low frequency system with a 60 Hz ac system is also proposed. Moreover, a fast and robust fault detection mechanism based on the second-order generalized-integrator (SOGI) grid synchronization technique is to develop and work properly in a low frequency system. Last but not least, a small-scaled transmission and distribution system is built to verify the basic performances of a power system at a low frequency operations.