CORDIC-based high-speed direct digital frequency synthesis
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The circular-mode CORDIC (coordinate rotation digital computer) algorithm is analyzed in the context of direct digital frequency synthesis (DDFS). It is shown how the CORDIC parameters should be selected to meet given DDFS parameters, and, through simulations, it is demonstrated that jamming outperforms truncation as a datapath quantization scheme, making it an attractive alternative to rounding. It is also shown that the CORDIC output can be made exact to the digits by an additional rounding process, which is especially useful for DDFS applications where the CORDIC output is truncated to the final digital-to-analog converter (DAC) width. Variations of the basic circular-mode CORDIC algorithm are investigated, and previous works for fast DDFS implementation based on those algorithms are discussed. A new DDFS architecture based on the differential CORDIC (DCORDIC) algorithm is proposed. The proposed architecture allows a bit-level pipelining in the angle path by implementing a two-dimensional systolic array. Unlike other fast DDFS architectures, it incorporates the phase accumulator in the bit-level pipelining framework so that a bottleneck-free datapath throughout the whole system is achieved. The sequential implementation and the hybrid implementation of the architecture for area-sensitive and low-latency designs, respectively, are proposed for further research.