Continuous pressure monitoring for large volume CO2 injections
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Elevated formation fluid pressure resulting from large-volume injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) for sequestration is a key factor affecting storage seal integrity (containment risk) and ultimate capacity. Current methods for predicting pressure evolution (e.g. natural gas storage, EOR, groundwater withdrawal/recharge) have unique considerations (temporal cyclicity, associated production) and have only recently been applied for the injected volumes, durations, and extents of sequestration projects. Monitoring pressure dynamics (buildup during injection and subsequent falloff upon cessation) is a fundamental and relatively inexpensive technique for monitoring storage performance. Our research employs multiple numerical techniques to predict the evolution of pressure within reservoirs and to evaluate the potential impact on confining systems (seals), thus constraining site-specific sequestration storage integrity and capacity. We focus on the use of pressure measurements for pragmatic integrative monitoring of reservoir, seal, and well performance. The results presented here focus on real-time pressure and temperature evolution in a dedicated observation well, combining observations from both the injection interval and a monitoring interval 120 m higher for early detection of unanticipated migration out of the injection zone via wellbores or confining system. Results indicate that for the Cranfield reservoir, increases (and by inference, decreases corresponding to pressure loss due to out of zone migration) in injection rates of 100’s of tons per day are observable from less than a kilometer distance from the source.