Considerations in conducting adhesion experiments via nanoindentation
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Recent attempts to commercialize graphene-based technology for flexible electronics applications have largely failed due to a lack of scalable, cost effective graphene transfer options. Dry graphene R2R transfer processes have numerous advantages over wet processes, but their development requires further characterization of the graphene-substrate interfaces. In support of this initiative, a displacement-controlled nanoindenter experimental protocol was developed for characterizing adhesion interactions between a diamond probe and specimen substrate surface. This protocol was used to characterize probe interactions with quartz, graphite, and silicon samples in ambient and nitrogen environments. Available literature data for diamond probe-silicon interactions correspond well to our work. However, persistent adhesive snap-behavior due to motor control deficiency in the selected device significantly reduced the utility of this technique. Resolution of full interaction behavior is severely impacted and is reduced to the order of 5 nm from the stated transducer capability of 0.4 nm.