Ayurveda is an ancient Indian system of medicine that has developed and flourished at least since the time of the fourth Veda, Atharva-Veda. In fact, the sway of Ayurveda, literally, the “scripture of longevity” has been such on the mind of the populace that it has sometimes been called the fifth Veda. It is often thought of as a “holistic” system of medicine that brings into balance the three vital components of the body through the use of herbs and specific dietary practices. Scholars have pointed out that Ayurveda was so developed even in the ancient times that one can find references to surgery within it, referred to as “Shalya Chikitsa.” Not many Ayurvedic doctors practice Shalya Chikitsa now, for that part of medicine has been taken over by modern medicine and hospital based surgery. However, the principles of Ayurveda are still recognized to be universally applicable and therefore, very popular in India and the Indian diaspora. There are many reputed indigenous pharmaceutical companies that produce Ayurvedic medicine for sale all over the world.