Integrated nanophotonics for "More than Moore"
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In the past half-century, the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has been successfully driving the development of the semiconductor industry. Since the 1970s, the number of components per integrated circuit has doubled every two years. The trend now is widely known as "Moore's Law". However, with the size of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors approaching the atomic dimension level, the "More Moore", which implies the aggressive continuous downscaling, has encountered numerous difficulties. On the other hand, people have realized that the value of a system does not only depend on the performance of the CMOS technology for the digital information processing but also on the functional diversification of semiconductor-based devices. Consequently, the term "More than Moore" has been introduced to emphasize the trend of increasing the diversity of microelectronic chips for additional value. Integrated nanophotonics could offer promising, practical, and profound solutions to several aspects of "More than Moore" such as radio-frequency signal processing and biochemical sensing due to unique advantages in processing analog signals. More importantly, integrated nanophotonic devices could be fabricated on semiconductor-based chips to build photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which could offer low-cost, high-reliability, and portable solutions to a variety of applications. In this dissertation, the design, fabrication, and characterization of various integrated nanophotonic devices will be presented to illustrate how integrated nanophotonics facilitates the development of "More than Moore".