Tightly-Coupled Opportunistic Navigation for Deep Urban and Indoor Positioning
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A strategy is presented for exploiting the frequency stability, transmit location, and timing information of ambient radio-frequency “signals of opportunity” for the purpose of navigating in deep urban and indoor environments. The strategy, referred to as tightly-coupled opportunistic navigation (TCON), involves a receiver continually searching for signals from which to extract navigation and timing information. The receiver begins by characterizing these signals, whether downloading characterizations from a collaborative online database or performing characterizations on-the-fly. Signal observables are subsequently combined within a central estimator to produce an optimal estimate of position and time. A simple demonstration of the TCON strategy focused on timing shows that a TCONenabled receiver can characterize and use CDMA cellular signals to correct its local clock variations, allowing it to coherently integrate GNSS signals beyond 100 seconds.