A Blueprint for Civil GPS Navigation Message Authentication
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A proposal for civil GPS navigation message authentication (NMA) is presented with sufficient specificity to enable near-term implementation. Although previous work established the practicality and efficacy of NMA for civil GPS signal authentication, there remains a need for a detailed proposal that addresses several outstanding considerations regarding implementation. In particular, this paper (1) provides a definitive evaluation of the tradeoffs involved in the choice of cryptographic protocol, and (2) optimizes the placement of digital signature bits in the GPS CNAV message stream. By offering GPS engineers and policymakers a detailed blueprint for civil NMA, this work advances the possibility of NMA implementation on modernized civil GPS signals.