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dc.creatorLundberg, John G.
dc.creatorHendrickson, Dean A.
dc.creatorLuckenbill, Kyle R.
dc.creatorArce H., Mariangeles
dc.identifier.citationLundberg, John G., Dean A. Hendrickson, Kyle Luckenbill, and Mariangeles Arce H. 2017. “Satan’s Skeleton Revealed: A Tomographic and Comparative Osteology of Satan Eurystomus, the Subterranean Widemouth Blindcat (Siluriformes, Ictaluridae).” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 165: 117-173.en_US
dc.descriptionThe animations and data archived here, derived from CT scans of two specimens of the Widemouth Blindcat, Satan eurystomus, supplement the content published separately as Lundberg, John G., Dean A. Hendrickson, Kyle Luckenbill, and Mariangeles Arce H. 2017. “Satan’s Skeleton Revealed: A Tomographic and Comparative Osteology of Satan Eurystomus, the Subterranean Widemouth Blindcat (Siluriformes, Ictaluridae).” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 165: 117-173. The files are also stored in an active Morphosource project (Skeletal Morphology of Stygobitic Ictalurids - where they may evolve and additional files may be added. Each file has its own additional description/caption.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe Widemouth Blindcat, Satan eurystomus Hubbs and Bailey 1947, was the second of four stygobitic species of Ictaluridae discovered in the subterranean waters of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. The skeletal anatomy of Satan has been scarcely known from a few, dated radiographs. Using additional radiographs and high resolution CT-datasets for two well-ossified specimens, we applied high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT) to visualize, illustrate and describe the bony skeleton of Satan. We also provide an online archive of still and animated tomographic images of the skeletal anatomy of this little-known species. The skeleton and soft anatomy of Satan are distinctive. Twelve skeletal autapomorphies are described that singularly distinguish Satan within Ictaluridae and, probably in combination, from all other catfishes. Some of these are reductive losses or simplifications of skull bones (e.g. loss of one infraorbital bone; reduced ornamentation of the pterotic bone) and joint complexity (e.g. simple overlapping frontal-lateral ethmoid articulation; loosely ligamentous interopercle-posterior ceratohyal joint). Some of the autapomorphies are anatomically and perhaps developmentally complex (e.g. a novel series of three midline joints closing a middle span of the posterior cranial fontanel; a deeply excavated temporal fossa and an unusually enlarged interhyal bone). The tiny dorsal-fin spinelet (first lepidotrich) of Satan has a novel peaked and twisted shape. Ten apparent and exclusive synapomorphies within Ictaluridae gathered from this and previous studies suggest that Satan and Pylodictis are closest relatives. Most of these are functionally related to prey detection and suction feeding: fusion of the symphyseal mandibular sensory pores and increase in the number of preoperculo-mandibular canal pores; depressed, flattened heads and wide transverse mouths; prominent posterior process of the lateral ethmoid alongside and below the frontal bone margin; vertical and blade-like supraoccipital posterior process; unique arrangement of the parasagittal and occipital muscle-attachment crests on the skull roof; large triangular panel of integument within the operculum framed by the opercle, preopercle and interopercle bones; elongated posterior ceratohyal; and, form of the fourth supraneural and loss of its anterior nuchal plate. In contrast, fifteen synapomorphies recovered by Arce-H. et al. 2016, are confirmed suggesting that Satan is one of the four stygobitic ictalurids comprising a “Troglobites” subclade within the family: (Trogloglanis, Satan, Prietella phreatophila, P. lundbergi). These features include three stygomorphic and reduction apomorphies that are exclusive within Ictaluridae: loss of fully developed eyes and pigmentation, and simplification of the fifth vertebra and its joint with the Weberian apparatus. Twelve other synapomorphies shown by the Troglobites are also apparent homoplasies of character states shared with various other ictalurids. These include reductive characters such as shortened lateral line canal, reduced infraorbitals and underdeveloped or incomplete ossifications of the pterotic, supraoccipital, hyoid arch bones and transcapular ligament. Also, the Troglobites and various other ictalurids have: an adnate adipose-caudal fin, foreshortened anterior cranial fontanelle, reduced ventral wings of the frontal bone, replacement of bone by cartilage in hypohyal joints; incompletely ossified transcapular ligament, and consolidation of some hypural bones. Completing a full morphological character dataset across the Troglobites has been impeded by incomplete specimen preparations and study of P. lundbergi and to a lesser extent, P. phreatophila and Trogloglanis.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipWe acknowledge assistance of K. McDermid, J. Krejca, P. Sprouse and B. Larsen of Zara Environmental LLC, Manchaca, TX for dedicated, but unfortunately unsuccessful, efforts to capture fresh specimens and help cleaning the museum specimen data. J. Maisano and M. Colbert of the University of Texas Digimorph Lab took the scans of the USNM specimen and an anonymous donor covered those costs. National Science Foundation Grant DEB 0315963 (Planetary Biodiversity Inventory: All Catfish Species Inventory) supported early groundwork that led to this project. K. Conway, Texas A&M University, Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections (TCWC) provided specimen data and A. Summers, University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories provided CT data for the TCWC specimen. University of Texas Austin, Department of Integrative Biology, Biodiversity Collections (Texas Natural History Collections - TNHC) supported the work of Hendrickson on this project, and The Academy of Natural Sciences, Department of Ichthyology, Philadelphia, PA supported the other authors' contributions. Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes, Washington, DC loaned us the USNM specimen and authorized scanning of it.en_US
dc.publisherProceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphiaen_US
dc.relation.ispartofUT Faculty/Researcher Worksen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States*
dc.subjectResearch Subject Categories::NATURAL SCIENCES::Biology::Organism biology::Morphologyen_US
dc.subjectResearch Subject Categories::NATURAL SCIENCES::Biology::Organism biology::Systematics and phylogeneticsen_US
dc.subjectSatan eurystomusen_US
dc.subjectWidemouth blindcaten_US
dc.subjectTrogloglanis pattersonien_US
dc.subjectToothless blindcaten_US
dc.subjectPrietella phreatophilaen_US
dc.subjectMexican blindcaten_US
dc.subjectPrietella lundbergien_US
dc.subjectPhantom blindcaten_US
dc.subjectPylodictis olivarisen_US
dc.subjectflathead catfishen_US
dc.subjectblind catfishen_US
dc.subjectcave catfishen_US
dc.subjectcave fishen_US
dc.subjectSan Antonioen_US
dc.subjectEdwards Aquiferen_US
dc.subjectCT scanen_US
dc.subjectComputed Tomographyen_US
dc.subject3D imageen_US
dc.titleSUPPLEMENTARY ANIMATIONS & DATA FOR: Satan’s skeleton revealed: a tomographic and comparative osteology of Satan eurystomus, the subterranean Widemouth Blindcat (Siluriformes, Ictaluridae). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 165: 117-173en_US
dc.typeData seten_US
dc.typeImage, 3-Den_US
dc.description.departmentIntegrative Biologyen_US

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