Jostling for power and the end of democracy in post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan : 1990 and 2010 conflicts in Ferghana Valley
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This thesis is an analysis of two conflicts in the Ferghana region of Kyrgyzstan in 1990 and 2010 to understand and find how ethnic relations in post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan have progressed. In looking at the conflict, there are two main aspects: first, the motivations of each ethnic group at the time of mobilization and secondly, the hierarchy structure of the groups once they had mobilized and were in the middle of the conflict. The 1990 conflict shows a lack in mobilization in both Uzbek and Kyrgyz populations and violence is mostly smaller groups of one ethnicity attacking individuals of the other group. Comparatively, analysis of the 2010 conflict shows mass mobilization within the Uzbek populations and directed violence against all Kyrgyz. 2010 also heralds the organization of political forces on each side perpetuating violence either through propaganda or through the use of agents providing on field support during the violence. Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, heading towards a democratic and self-sustaining nation after the fall of the Soviet Union, fell into the throws of conflict over its identity. Political corruption, demagogue leaders, and self-enriching politicians brought the promise of a bright future to its end. The rise of nationalism within both Kyrgyz and Uzbek populations over the twenty years since the collapse of the Soviet Union has led to far lethal and disruptive violence in this region.