Reflective and relativistic refactoring with feature-awareness
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Refactoring is a core technology in modern software development. It is central to popular software design movements, such as Extreme Programming  and Agile software development , and all major Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) today offer some form of refactoring support. Despite this, refactoring engines have languished behind research. Modern IDEs offer no means to sequence refactorings to automate program changes. Further, current refactoring engines exhibit problems of speed and expressivity, which makes writing composite refactorings such as design patterns infeasible. Even worse, existing refactoring tools for Object-Oriented languages are unaware of configurations in Software Product Lines (SPLs) codebases. With this motivation in mind, this dissertation makes three contributions to address these issues: First, we present the Java API library, called R2, to script Eclipse refactorings to retrofit design patterns into existing programs. We encoded 18 out of 23 design patterns described by Gang-of-Four  as R2 scripts and explain why the remaining refactorings are inappropriate for refactoring engines. R2 sheds light on why refactoring speed and expressiveness are critical issues for scripting. Second, we present a new Java refactoring engine, called R3, that addresses an Achilles heel in contemporary refactoring technology, namely scripting performance. Unlike classical refactoring techniques that modify Abstract Syntax Trees (ASTs), R3 refactors programs by rendering ASTs via pretty printing. AST rendering never changes the AST; it only displays different views of the AST/program. Coupled with new ways to evaluate refactoring preconditions, R3 increases refactoring speed by an order of magnitude over Eclipse and facilitates computing views of a program where the original behavior is preserved. Third, we provide a feature-aware refactoring tool, called X15, for SPL codebases written in Java. X15 takes advantage of R3's view rendering to implement a projection technology in Feature-Oriented Software Development, which produces subprograms of the original SPL by hiding unneeded feature code. X15 is the first feature-aware refactoring tool for Java that implements a theory of refactoring feature modules, and allows users to edit and refactor SPL programs via “views”. In the most demanding experiments, X15 barely runs a second slower than R3, giving evidence that refactoring engines for SPL codebases can indeed be efficient.
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