Effectiveness of brand placements in music videos with focus on repetition
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Modern advertising landscape is becoming more complex than ever. High level of media segmentation, growing ad clutter, adoption of ad skipping devices and rising costs negatively affect the efficiency of traditional advertising methods. As such, contemporary marketers are in search of more cost-effective channels for their promotions. Inclusion of brands in the content of mass media programing, a practice known as a brand placement, is becoming a popular promotional format. Prior research has shown that use of brand placements not only enable to showcase how brands are being used in their natural settings, but also help to heighten brand memory of target consumers, elevate their positive brand attitudes and even influence their behavior. This dissertation is aimed to build on a growing stream of research in the marketing literature on brand placements by investigating the effects of brand placement repetition on cognitive, affective and conative outcomes. Although the abundant research on this topic exists for the traditional advertising formats, very limited scholarship investigates effects of repetition in the context of brands embedded in music videos. Based on the comprehensive review of the literature on brand placement effectiveness, a group of hypotheses and research questions were tested using an experimental approach. Four hundred eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups or the control group and were asked to watch a block of music videos containing different levels of brand placement repetitions. After watching music videos, participants completed the questionnaire designed to measure memory, affective and conative outcomes. Findings indicate that at the low levels (below 4-5 exposures) repetition of a brand placement has a positive effect on brand memory, brand attitudes and intentions to buy the brand or to recommend it to others. However, further increase of repetitions had detrimental effects on brand attitudes and purchase intentions, but not on the memory measures. The implications of these findings are discussed and possible extensions of the present study are proposed.
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