Microstructure and processing effects on stress and reliability for through-silicon vias (TSVs) in 3D integrated circuits
MetadataShow full item record
Copper (Cu) Through-silicon via (TSV) is a key enabling element that provides the vertical connection between stacked dies in three-dimensional (3D) integration. The thermal expansion mismatch between Cu and Si induces complex stresses in and around the TSV structures, which can degrade the performance and reliability of 3DICs and are key concerns for technology development. In this dissertation, the effects of Cu microstructure and processing conditions on the stress characteristics and reliability of the TSV structure are studied. First, the stress characteristics of Cu TSV structures are investigated using the substrate curvature method. The substrate curvature measurement was supplemented by microstructure and finite element analyses (FEA) to investigate the mechanisms for the linear and nonlinear stress-temperature behaviors observed for the TSV structure. Implications of the near surface stress on carrier mobility change and device keep-out zone (KOZ) are discussed. Second, via extrusion, an important yield and reliability issue for 3D integration, is analyzed. Synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction technique was introduced for direct measurements of local stress and material behaviors in and around the TSV. Local plasticity near the top of the via was observed which provided direct experimental evidence to support the plasticity mechanism of via extrusion. An analytical model and FEA were used to analyze via extrusion based on local plasticity. Next, the effect of Cu microstructure effect on the thermomechanical behaviors of TSVs is investigated. The contribution from grain boundary and interfacial diffusion on via extrusion and the relaxation mechanisms are discussed. Potential approaches to minimize via extrusion are proposed. Finally, the stress characteristics of 3D die stack structures are studied using synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction. High resolution stress mappings were performed and verified by finite element analysis (FEA). FEA was further developed to estimate the stress effect on device mobility changes and the warpage of the integrated structure.