Assessment and analytical framework for sport literacy : a case of college basketball
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This dissertation aims to develop an analytical framework for measuring sport literacy from a case study of college basketball literacy. The dissertation is motivated by the recognition of the importance of sport literacy as an essential concept for fan development and the lack of empirical research on the development of an assessment tool. The goals of this dissertation are twofold: 1) to build a conceptual framework that explains the necessary components for sport spectating, and 2) to develop an assessment that can measure the sport literacy of college students. To accomplish these goals, I constructed two sequential studies within the context of college basketball. The first study proposes a conceptual model of sport literacy through a multiple case study design method (Eisenhardt, 1989). Data were collected from multiple sources including expert interviews, scenario plays, and documentary evidence. Multiple comparisons and inductive analyses allowed the discovery of relevant knowledge categories and components. In the second study, I developed a college basketball literacy assessment (CBLA). The instrumentation process was guided by the evidence-centered design method (Mislevy & Riconscente, 2006). Initially, 51 items were generated with the aid of six content experts including basketball players, coaches, and fans. These items were reviewed by an additional group of experts to establish the content validity. Through the expert reviews and pilot testing, 40 items were finalized for the CBLA. A total of 382 responses from college students were used to evaluate the CBLA. Using the Rasch model, all 40 items were calibrated to examine psychometric properties of the assessment. The results supported the construct validity of the CBLA, showing acceptable unidimensionality, fit statistics, differential item functioning, etc. All except one item showed good fit statistics within the model. The results also demonstrated that the level of sport literacy has moderate and significant correlations with team identification and intention to watch the game. These findings prompt a re-thinking of developing strategies to recruit and retain spectators for a given sport. In conclusion, the results of this dissertation provide theoretical and empirical justification for developing the sport literacy assessment and highlight the importance of improving sport literacy as a solution for enhancing the intercollegiate sport spectating experience.