The predicting factors of sodium intake of Korean Americans with type 2 diabetes
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The primary aim of the study was to examine the predictive relationships among personal factors (age, gender, education level, income, marital status, acculturation, duration of diagnosed diabetes), barriers to recommended sodium intake (low health literacy, high energy intake, high depressive symptoms, and absence of primary health care provider), interpersonal influences (social support), and sodium intake among Korean Americans (KAs) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The second aim was to describe the daily sodium intake and to identify the main sources of sodium intake for KAs with T2DM. The conceptual framework was adapted from Pender’s Health Promotion Model. This descriptive correlational study was a secondary data analysis of a large, randomized clinical trial with community-dwelling KAs diagnosed with T2DM. The sample consisted of 232 KAs between the ages of 35 to 76 years. The average daily sodium intake was 3,600 mg with the majority of the sample (68.1%) exceeding the sodium recommendations of the American Diabetes Association of 2,300 mg per day. The main finding of the study was high level of energy intake (calories) was the strongest predictor for sodium intake and gender and marital status were also related to sodium intake. The top five major contributors to sodium intake were noodles and dumplings (15.14%), Korean-style soups (12.75%), Kimchi (12.14%), bread and snacks (10.28%), and boiled or seasoned vegetables (7.37%). Four out of the five top contributors to sodium intake were foods from the Korean traditional diet. This study extends the growing literature on excessive sodium intake in high-risk cardiovascular disease among KAs with T2DM. These findings will assist health care providers, researchers, and policy makers in identifying the relating factors to consume high amounts of sodium and in providing guidance on how culturally-tailored dietary education and intervention strategies can best be designed, implemented, and distributed to meet the recommendations of dietary sodium intake.