The effects of fluid milk in attenuating postprandial hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia
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The increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and vascular dysfunction that is associated with postprandial hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia may be reduced with consumption of non-fat dairy products. Due to the insulinotropic effect of milk-derived proteins, postprandial hyperglycemia has been shown to be reduced with the addition of dairy products. The purpose of Study 1 was to determine if one serving of non-fat milk added to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with elevated android adiposity independent of the effects of the milk’s protein content and whether these improvements would be associated with metabolic and/or peripheral hemodynamic effects. In this placebo controlled, randomized, crossover experimental study, twenty-nine overweight/obese adults consumed an OGTT combined with either non-fat milk or a placebo control. In the whole sample, blood glucose and insulin concentrations increased over time in both trials with no differences between trials. When the subjects were divided into tertiles of android body fat, the highest tertile displayed attenuated hyperglycemic responses as well as improvements in flow-mediated dilation during the milk intervention. Repeated exposure to elevated postprandial triglycerides, as seen with typical Western diets, contributes to atherosclerosis and vascular disease. The purpose of Study 2 was to determine if a single serving of non-fat milk added to a high fat meal could attenuate postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in individuals who consume a high fat diet. In this placebo controlled, randomized, crossover experimental study, thirty overweight/obese adults consumed a high fat meal combined with either non-fat milk, carbohydrate control, or caloric control. In the whole sample, plasma triglycerides increased over time with no differences between interventions. When participants were ranked and divided based on habitual dietary fat intake, the high fat diet group exhibited reduced triglycerides when supplemented with non-fat milk. No differences in hemodynamic measures (brachial flow-mediated dilation and femoral vascular conductance) were observed between the milk and caloric control trials for either the low fat or high fat diet groups. Taken together, the results indicate that a single serving of non-fat milk may attenuate acute hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in individuals that present with specific risk factors for CVD.