Teaching mothers : normal schools as social policy in Brazil, 1880-1960
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This study examines normal schools in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century Brazil and their deficiencies in producing competent primary school teachers. As normal schools became increasingly female, starting in Brazil around 1880, educational reformers saw in them the opportunity to mold society not only through the careful influence and training of future-teachers, but also of futuremothers. By the early twentieth century, the aim of producing ideal mothers had taken over many Brazilian normal schools, altering the make-up of their student bodies and curriculums, to the detriment of primary education throughout the country.