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dc.creatorCrawford, Katherine A.en_US
dc.creatorCowley, Alan H.en_US
dc.creatorHumphrey, Simon M.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-10-28T19:51:24Z
dc.date.available2016-10-28T19:51:24Z
dc.date.issued2014en_US
dc.identifierdoi:10.15781/T2MP4VQ8P
dc.identifier.citationCrawford, Katherine A., Alan H. Cowley, and Simon M. Humphrey. "Bis (imino) acenaphthene (BIAN)-supported palladium (ii) carbene complexes as effective C–C coupling catalysts and solvent effects in organic and aqueous media." Catalysis Science & Technology, Vol. 4, No. 5 (2014): 1456-1464.en_US
dc.identifier.issn2044-4753en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2152/43241
dc.description.abstractThe synthesis and catalytic properties of two new 1,2-acenaphthenyl N-heterocyclic carbene-supported palladium(II) catalysts are presented. The acenaphthenyl carbene has been prepared with mesityl or 1,5-diisopropyl N-aryl substituents. Comprehensive catalytic studies for the Suzuki coupling of aryl halides with aryl boronic acids have been conducted. In general, the diisopropyl-functionalised catalyst showed superior selectivity and reactivity. A comparison of the catalytic performances in dichloromethane, toluene and water at low temperatures (30- 40 degrees C) is also presented. Both catalysts were proficient in the homogeneous Suzuki coupling of aryl iodides, bromides and chlorides with boronic acids in dichloromethane. Similar reactions in water led to the formation of insoluble colloidal catalytic species that still exhibited high activity in the Suzuki reaction with aryl chlorides. Reactions performed in toluene showed intermediate results; partial catalyst decomposition led to concomitant homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The heterogeneous palladium precipitates could be easily recovered by filtration and reactivated for subsequent use. Activation energies determined for aryl bromide-based Suzuki reactions were found to be in the range of 159-171 kJ mol(-1) in organic solvents and 111-116 kJ mol(-1) in water. The corresponding activation energy for the aryl chloride was found to be 322 kJ mol(-1) in water.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipRobert A. Welch Foundation F-1738, F-003en_US
dc.language.isoEnglishen_US
dc.relation.ispartofen_US
dc.rightsAdministrative deposit of works to Texas ScholarWorks: This works author(s) is or was a University faculty member, student or staff member; this article is already available through open access or the publisher allows a PDF version of the article to be freely posted online. The library makes the deposit as a matter of fair use (for scholarly, educational, and research purposes), and to preserve the work and further secure public access to the works of the University.en_US
dc.subjectligand-free palladiumen_US
dc.subjectefficient heterogeneous catalysten_US
dc.subjectsuzuki-miyauraen_US
dc.subjectcouplingsen_US
dc.subjectaryl chloridesen_US
dc.subjectheck reactionen_US
dc.subjectroom-temperatureen_US
dc.subjectnanoparticlesen_US
dc.subjectwateren_US
dc.subjectnhcen_US
dc.subjectprecatalysten_US
dc.subjectchemistry, physicalen_US
dc.titleBis(Imino)Acenaphthene (BIAN)-Supported Palladium(II) Carbene Complexes as Effective C-C Coupling Catalysts and Solvent Effects in Organic and Aqueous Mediaen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.departmentChemistryen_US
dc.rights.restrictionOpenen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1039/c4cy00192cen_US
dc.contributor.utaustinauthorCrawford, Katherine A.en_US
dc.contributor.utaustinauthorCowley, Alan H.en_US
dc.contributor.utaustinauthorHumphrey, Simon M.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofserialCatalysis Science & Technologyen_US


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