Demographics of Bulge Types Within 11 Mpc and Implications for Galaxy Evolution
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We present an inventory of galaxy bulge types (elliptical galaxy, classical bulge, pseudobulge, and bulgeless galaxy) in a volume-limited sample within the local 11 Mpc sphere using Spitzer 3.6 mu m and Hubble Space Telescope data. We find that whether counting by number, star Formation rate, or stellar mass, the dominant galaxy type in the local universe has pure disk characteristics (either hosting a pseudobulge or being bulgeless). Galaxies that contain either a pseudobulge or no bulge combine to account for over 80% of the number of galaxies above a stellar mass of 10(9) M-circle dot. Classical bulges and elliptical galaxies account for similar to 1/4, and disks for similar to 3/4 of the stellar mass in the local 11 Mpc. About 2/3 of all star Formation in the local volume takes place in galaxies with pseudobulges. Looking at the fraction of galaxies with different bulge types as a function of stellarmass, we find that the frequency of classical bulges strongly increases with stellar mass, and comes to dominate above 10(10.5) M-circle dot. Galaxies with pseudobulges dominate at 10(9.5)-10(10.5) M-circle dot. Yet lower-mass galaxies are most likely to be bulgeless. If pseudobulges are not a product of mergers, then the frequency of pseudobulges in the local universe poses a challenge for galaxy evolution models.
CitationFisher, David B., and Niv Drory. "Demographics of bulge types within 11 Mpc and implications for galaxy evolution." The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 733, No. 2 (Jun., 2011): L47.
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