Momentum-space entanglement in quantum spin chains
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In this dissertation, the momentum-space entanglement properties of several quantum spin chains are investigated. In the second chapter we re- view important results on many-body entanglement. In the third chapter, we numerically study the momentum-space entanglement spectra of bosonic and fermionic formulations of the spin-1/2 XXZ chain [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 256404 (2014)]. We investigate the behavior of the entanglement gaps, present in both formulations, across quantum phase transitions in the XXZ chain. In both cases, finite size scaling suggests that the entanglement gap closure does not occur at the physical transition points. For bosons, we find that the entan- glement gap depends on the scaling dimension of the conformal field theory as varied by the X X Z anisotropy. For fermions, the infinite entanglement gap present at the XX point persists well past the phase transition at the Heisenberg point. We elaborate on how this may support the numerical study of phase transitions. In the third chapter, we advocate that in certain critical spin chains a gap in the momentum-space entanglement spectrum separates the universal part of the spectrum, which is determined by the associated conformal field theory, from the non-universal part, which is specific to the model [arXiv:1512.09030]. We provide affirmative evidence from multicritical spin-1 chains with low energy sectors described by the SU(2)2 or the SU(3)1 Wess-Zumino-Witten model. In chapter four, we study momentum- space en- tanglement in quantum spin-half ladders [Phys. Rev. B 93, 125107 (2016)]. When the system is gapped, we analytically find the momentum-space entan- glement Hamiltonian is described by a chiral conformal field theory with a central charge of two. When the system is gapless, the entanglement Hamil- tonian consists of one gapless mode that is linear in subsystem momentum and one mode with a flat dispersion relation. We also analytically include the effect of a certain irrelevant terms (in the renormalization group sense) on the entanglement spectrum. In chapter six, we investigate the momentum- space entanglement spectrum after a quantum quench [arXiv:1603.01997]. We show that the momentum-space entanglement spectrum of the XXZ spin- half chain possesses many universal features both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench.