Evolution of localization in NiTi shape memory alloys and its effect on structures
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Nearly equiatomic NiTi can be strained to several percent and fully recover upon unloading (pseudoelastic behavior). This property is derived from solid-state transformations between the austenitic (A) and martensitic (M) phases, which can be induced by either changes in temperature or stress. In concert with prior results in tension, stress-induced phase transformation leads to localized deformation associated with the nucleation and propagation of the M-phase during loading and the A-phase during unloading. By contrast, it is demonstrated that under compression, transformation stresses are higher, strains are smaller, and the deformation is essentially homogeneous. This tension-compression asymmetry and unstable material behavior have an effect on the response and stability of NiTi structures. This is demonstrated with pure bending of tubes, and axial compression of cylindrical shells. Pure bending results in localization that leads to the coexistence of two curvature regimes. In the axial compression of the shell, transformation induces buckling and collapse, both of which are recoverable upon unloading. A requirement for the analysis and design of such structures is constitutive models that capture the material instability and asymmetry. Furthermore, the extensions of these material nonlinearities to the multiaxial setting must be addressed. To this end, results from a series of experiments on pseudoelastic NiTi tubes loaded under combined axial load and internal pressure are presented in which radial stress paths in the axial-hoop stress space were traced. Stereo digital image correlation was used to monitor the evolution of transformation-induced deformation. Results spanning axial-to-hoop stress ratios from -1.0 to uniaxial tension revealed that, but for a narrow region near equibiaxial tension, transformation leads to localized helical deformation bands with helix angles that vary with the stress ratio, while the stresses remain nearly constant. In the vicinity of equibiaxial tension, the material exhibits hardening and homogeneous deformation. Loci of the transformation stresses, while exhibiting minor anisotropy, traced an elongated non-Mises trajectory in the axial-hoop stress space. By contrast, the transformation strains exhibit significant anisotropy between axial and hoop dominant stress paths. Moreover, strains around the equibiaxial stress state, where material hardening and homogeneous deformation was observed, are significantly smaller than in the rest of the stress space. The strain anisotropy has a corresponding reflection on the energy dissipated during transformation with axial dominant stress paths dissipating significantly more energy than hoop dominant ones, with less dissipation observed in the neighborhood of equibiaxial stress.