Multi-dimensional land seismic data-acquisition techniques and random survey design
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This study analyzes different techniques and innovations of three-dimensional seismic data acquisition and survey design. Multi-dimensional (both 2-D and 3-D) survey design requires objective consideration of survey goals, the range of expected Earth responses, crew and equipment accessibility, acquisition costs, instrument capabilities, experimental field conditions, and logistic considerations. Planning a 3-D survey combines operational and technical issues which, in turn, depend on acquisition and design parameters. Because seismic source effort, crew and equipment availability, and size and shape of the survey affect survey cost, it is necessary to understand how all of these factors individually affect the overall data-acquisition program. The main goals of this thesis are to analyze the effect of receiving station coordinate randomness on different 3-D seismic data-acquisition and survey design characteristics, both operationally and technically, and to ultimately optimize the cost and data quality of seismic surveys. Many advances have been made in imaging subsurface structures at both shallow and deep target locations through improved seismic data-acquisition and processing techniques in the past two decades. Service companies and oil companies continue to develop new techniques to create better 3-D images with higher resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio. A major problem that confronts onshore seismic exploration companies is the effects of the acquisition geometry on recorded data. Receiver and source line spacings, range of offsets, and azimuths, fold variations, and source-generated noise are all important issues to consider, as are culture, topography, and surface conditions. This thesis consists of two parts: (1) station randomness effects on acquisition and survey parameters, and (2) experimental evaluation of Vibroseis sweep parameters. To perform the latter analysis, field data acquired across Tohonadla field at Bluff, Utah were processed, and data generated with various Vibroseis sweep parameters were compared. These analyses allowed data-acquisition and survey design parameters to be related to the cost of the survey and to data quality.