Methanol and isopropanol embryo dosage response curves for wild-type and ethanol-sensitive zebrafish
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It is well established that ethanol has an array of negative effects on developing embryos, from craniofacial abnormalities to cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) describes this phenotypic spectrum caused by embryonic ethanol exposure. However, the effects of other small alcohols, such as methanol and isopropanol, have on development are poorly understood. Multiple factors can contribute to the teratogenicity of small alcohols, including timing, dosage and genetic background. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been shown to be a powerful model in the study ethanol teratogenesis and can serve as a model to study methanol and isopropanol teratogenicity. Here we provide evidence of the dose response to methanol and isopropanol in a wild type and an ethanol- sensitive mutant zebrafish line. We determine the lethal concentrations of methanol and isopropanol on wild type and ethanol-sensitive mutants. We also show effective dose that leads to malformations of the craniofacial skeleton, including defects to the lower jaw and palate. Our data suggest that ethanol-sensitivity may predict sensitivity to other small alcohols. Overall, our results begin to characterize the effects of methanol and isopropanol on developing embryos.